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Dependability Services and Intrusion Tolerance in WSNs: Intrusion-Tolerant Routing Servoces with Multiple Disjoint Paths and Multiple Base StationsAbstract:
Many contributions in the research of Secure Routing Protocols are available in the literature. Many state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing the different routing protocols that have been proposed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), with different proposed classifications, for example: data-centric vs. net-centric, classifications by network topology structure and network organisation type, type of operation or application-driven routing schemes. In many studies the security or reliability aspects (or a conjugation of both aspects in a dependability approach) have not been given enough focus. In one hand, a large number of routing services for WSNs have not been designed with security requirements as first-class requirements at design time. However it has been described in the WSN security literature that many WSN applications need to support operations related to the management of critical infrastructures. Many applications require that WSNs must be used in the “open field” and sometimes in large-scale deployment scenarios. In these scenarios, ad-hoc WSNs operating as autonomous “systems”, run without human supervision and no (or low) physical access protection of the devices involved. In these cases, security becomes an important issue. And since these infrastructures are highly depended on the availability of resources, a research focus has especially been given to support secure, resilient and reliable environments, as dimensions composed in WSN dependability solutions. Fault-tolerant (FT) and Intrusion Tolerant (IT) WSNs fit in those approaches, where different perspectives are present and possibly combined, with adversarial and failure models defined from different failures or attack types. For the approach of dependable-routing solutions for WSNs, a multipath routing strategy is one interesting solution. A multipath routing scheme can use different and disjoint routes and multiple base stations or syncnodes, dynamically established for ad-hoc network settings. The need for dependability (e.g., reliability and security properties) in sensitive WSN application has lead researchers to propose secure multipath routing protocols, by design, or as additional properties extended for existing protocols. In this report, a survey of state-of-the-art of secure multi path routing protocols in WSN is presented. The approach is to update the vision of previous surveys, papers or book chapters, classifying the protocols according to a taxonomy, considering security-related operational objectives, defining typical adversary models and identifying open research issues in the area. From this vision, we establish the design considerations for a new dependable routing service for WSNs we develop in the context of the SITAN Research Project: the MINSENS++ routing protocol.